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Wednesday, 2 October 2013

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle{GSLV}


Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
Variants


GSLV
GSLV Mk I (a)
This variant had a 125 t (S-125) first stage and was capable of launching 1500 kg into geostationary transfer orbit. This is retired.
GSLV Mk I (b)
This variant had 139 t (S-139) first stage and improved fuel in the strap-on boosters & second stage. This variant can launch 1900 kg into geostationary transfer orbit.
GSLV Mk I (c)
This variant has a 15 tonne third stage. GSLV-F06 (flight 6) is the only attempted launch of the Mark I(c) version to date.
GSLV Mk II
This variant uses an Indian cryogenic engine and is capable of launching 2500 kg into geostationary transfer orbit. Previous GSLV vehicles (GSLV Mk.I) have used Russian cryogenic engines.
GSLV Mk III
This rocket is the technological successor to the GSLV, however is not derived from its predecessor.
Launch history
All GSLV launches have been conducted from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.
Flight
Launch date/time (UTC)
Variant
Launch Pad
Payload
Payload Mass
Result
Note(s)
D1
18 April 2001
10:13
Mk I(a)
First
GSAT-1
1,540 kg
Failure
Developmental Flight, payload placed into lower than planned orbit, and did not have sufficient fuel to reach a usable orbit.
D2
8 May 2003
11:28
Mk I(a)
First
GSAT-2
1,825 kg
Success
Developmental Flight
F01
20 September 2004
Mk I(b)
First
EDUSAT
1,950 kg
Success
First operational flight]
F02
10 July 2006
12:08
Mk I(b)
Second
INSAT-4C
2,168 kg
Failure
Both rocket and satellite had to be destroyed over the Bay of Bengal after the rocket's trajectory veered outside of permitted limits.
F04
2 September 2007
12:51
Mk I(b)
Second
INSAT-4CR
2,160 kg
Partial failure
Successful Launch,[ apogee lower and inclination higher than expected, due to minor error in guidance subsystem. Eventually the 2160 kg payload reached the designated geostationary transfer orbit. Minor error in orbit inclunation corrected by satellite mission operators. Satellite is fully operational and full design life of ten years will be achieved. It completed 5 years in orbit successfully
D3
15 April 2010
10:57
Mk II
Second
GSAT-4
2,220 kg
Failure
First flight test of the ISRO designed and built Cryogenic Upper Stage. Failed to reach orbit due to malfunction of Fuel Booster Turbo Pump (FBTP) of the Cryogenic Upper Stage.
D4
25 December 2010
10:34
Mk I(c)
Second
GSAT-5P
2,130 kg
Failure
First flight of GSLV Mk.I (c) Destroyed by range safety officer after loss of control of liquid-fueled boosters.
Planned launches

D5
19 August, 2013
Mk II
Second
GSAT-14
1,980  kg
 Postponed
Due to leakage of fuel in second stage

Second flight of GSLV with indigenous cryogenic upper stage(CUS) developed by ISRO’s Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) at Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu.
Just an hour and 14 minutes before the lift off, a leakage was reported and the launch was halted.

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)
GSLV was declared operational (GSLV Mk.1) after both its developmental test flights conducted in April 2001 and May 2003 were successful. In its first operational flight, GSLV-F01, successfully launched the 1,950 kg G-SAT 3 on September 20, 2004.
In its present configuration, the 49 metre tall, 414 tonne, GSLV is a three stage vehicle. The first stage, GS1, comprises a core motor with 138 tonne of solid propellant and four strap-on motors each with 40 tonne of hypergolic liquid propellants (UH25 and N204). The second stage has 39 tonne of the same hypergolic liquid propellants. The third stage (GS3) is a cryogenic stage with 12.5 tonne of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2). The Aluminum alloy GSLV payload fairing is 3.4 m in diameter and is 7.8 m long.



The GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle)  uses lower stage closely derived from the PSLV, with a new cryogenic third stage replacing the third and fourth stage of PSLV. In place of small solid strap-on boosters used in the PSLV, the GSLV uses four liquid boosters that are derived from the PSLV second stage. The same solid  first stage  and liquid second stage are carried over  from the PSLV. The third  stage is a cryogenic hydrogen/oxygen  upper stage. Seven stage are manufactured by Khrunishev/Russia. The GSLV payload fairing is made of aluminium and is manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics. 
 
The three-axis attitude (orientation) stabilisation of GSLV is achieved by autonomous control systems provided in each stage. Single plane Engine Gimbal Control (EGC) of the four strap-ons of the first stage are used for pitch, yaw and roll control. The second stage has EGC for pitch and yaw and hot gas Reaction Control System (RCS) for roll control. Two swivellable vernier engines using LH2 and LOX provide pitch, yaw and roll control for the third stage during thrust phase and cold gas system during coast phase. The Inertial Guidance System (IGS) in the Equipment Bay (EB) housed above the third stage guides the vehicle till spacecraft injection. The closed loop guidance scheme resident in the on-board computer ensures the required accuracy in the injection conditions. GSLV employs S-band telemetry and C-band transponders for the vehicle performance monitoring, tracking, range safety/flight safety and Preliminary Orbit Determination (POD).
GSLV employs various separation systems such as Flexible Linear Shaped Charge (FLSC) for the first stage, pyro-actuated collet release mechanism for second stage and Merman band bolt cutter separation mechanism for the third stage. Spacecraft separation is by spring thrusters mounted at the separation interface.
The third stage of GSLV is cryogenic. The initial flights of GSLV (GSLV Mk.1) use Russian supplied cryogenic stage. CUSP envisages design and development of the indigenous cryogenic upper stage to replace the Russian supplied cryogenic stage in GSLV (GSLV Mk.2).





 Orbital launches
 Period
Last launch
GSLV
Mk.1

2
2001 - 2003

GSLV
Mk.1+

4
2004 - 2010

GSLV
Mk.2

1
2010


Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)
GSLV was declared operational (GSLV Mk.1) after both its developmental test flights conducted in April 2001 and May 2003 were successful. In its first operational flight, GSLV-F01, successfully launched the 1,950 kg G-SAT 3 on September 20, 2004.
In its present configuration, the 49 metre tall, 414 tonne, GSLV is a three stage vehicle. The first stage, GS1, comprises a core motor with 138 tonne of solid propellant and four strap-on motors each with 40 tonne of hypergolic liquid propellants (UH25 and N204). The second stage has 39 tonne of the same hypergolic liquid propellants. The third stage (GS3) is a cryogenic stage with 12.5 tonne of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2). The Aluminum alloy GSLV payload fairing is 3.4 m in diameter and is 7.8 m long.

The GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle)  uses lower stage closely derived from the PSLV, with a new cryogenic third stage replacing the third and fourth stage of PSLV. In place of small solid strap-on boosters used in the PSLV, the GSLV uses four liquid boosters that are derived from the PSLV second stage. The same solid  first stage  and liquid second stage are carried over  from the PSLV. The third  stage is a cryogenic hydrogen/oxygen  upper stage. Seven stage are manufactured by Khrunishev/Russia. The GSLV payload fairing is made of aluminium and is manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics. 
 
The three-axis attitude (orientation) stabilisation of GSLV is achieved by autonomous control systems provided in each stage. Single plane Engine Gimbal Control (EGC) of the four strap-ons of the first stage are used for pitch, yaw and roll control. The second stage has EGC for pitch and yaw and hot gas Reaction Control System (RCS) for roll control. Two swivellable vernier engines using LH2 and LOX provide pitch, yaw and roll control for the third stage during thrust phase and cold gas system during coast phase. The Inertial Guidance System (IGS) in the Equipment Bay (EB) housed above the third stage guides the vehicle till spacecraft injection. The closed loop guidance scheme resident in the on-board computer ensures the required accuracy in the injection conditions. GSLV employs S-band telemetry and C-band transponders for the vehicle performance monitoring, tracking, range safety/flight safety and Preliminary Orbit Determination (POD).
GSLV employs various separation systems such as Flexible Linear Shaped Charge (FLSC) for the first stage, pyro-actuated collet release mechanism for second stage and Merman band bolt cutter separation mechanism for the third stage. Spacecraft separation is by spring thrusters mounted at the separation interface.
The third stage of GSLV is cryogenic. The initial flights of GSLV (GSLV Mk.1) use Russian supplied cryogenic stage. CUSP envisages design and development of the indigenous cryogenic upper stage to replace the Russian supplied cryogenic stage in GSLV (GSLV Mk.2).


The Indian Space Research Organisation will develop a new GSLV Mark III, its heaviest, tallest and most powerful rocket. The 42.4-metre-tall rocket will have a lift-off weight of 630 tonnes and can put a four-tonne satellite into the geo-synchronous transfer orbit (GTO) or a 10-tonne satellite into a low-earth orbit. In comparison, the GSLV flight of May 8, belonging to the first generation of GSLVs, put a 1.8-tonne satellite in the GTO. The GSLV Mark II can put 2.2- to 2.4-tonne satellites into the GTO.
GSLV Mark III is not derived from the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) or the presented GSLV. Although it is called Mark III, it is a totally new vehicle. Its upper stage will be powered by a cryogenic engine developed at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu and codenamed C-25. It will have 25 tonnes of propellants - liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen - which will develop a thrust of 20 tonnes.
Besides the cryogenic stage, GSLV Mark III has a core stage of two engines powered by 110 tonnes of liquid propellants and two huge strap-on motors strung around the core.
Each strap-on motor of the Mark III will be 3.4 metres in diameter and they will be 25 metres tall. The challenge here is that India will develop a huge booster with 200 tonnes of solid propellants, and a cryogenic stage with 25 tonnes of propellants.
The development work on Mark III began in October 2002. New facilities will be established at Sriharikota and Mahendragiri to develop the solid boosters, the core liquid stage and the cryogenic stage. A massive plant will come up at Sriharikota to produce solid propellants for Mark III. This will be in addition to the existing Solid Propellant Booster Plant (SPROB) facility at SHAR, one of the biggest plants of its kind in the world. The private and public sector industries taking part in the project too have to augment their facilities for the realisation of Mark III hardware.
                                                                                                                           

LVM3 (GSLV-Mk.3)
LVM3 is envisaged to launch four tonne satellite into geosynchronous transfer orbit. LVM3 is a three-stage vehicle with a 110 tonne core liquid propellant stage (L-110) and a strap-on stage with two solid propellant motors, each with 200 tonne propellant (S-200). The upper stage will be cryogenic with a propellant loading of 25 tonne (C-25). LVM3 will have a lift off weight of about 629 tonne and will be 42.4 m tall. The payload fairing will have a diameter of 5 metre and a payload volume of 100 cubic metre.
 
Vehicle Description
Boosters

The boosters used on the GSLV-III will be the S200, which is also designated Large Solid Booster, or LSB, which is a solid propellant stage with a mass of 200 tonnes. Two boosters will be used. Each has a diameter of 3.4 metres and a length of 25 metres. Each booster generates 517 tonnes-force (5.15 MN) of thrust at lift-off. The Solid booster S-200 was successfully tested in January 2010.
Core stage
The core stage will be the L110 restartable liquid stage which has 110 tonnes of liquid propellant and a diameter of 4-metres. It will be the first Indian liquid engine cluster design, and will use two improved Vikas engines, each producing 75 tonnes of thrust. The improved Vikas engine will use regenerative cooling, providing improved weight and specific impulse, compared to earlier rockets.
Upper stage
The upper stage will be the C25, which is a cryogenic stage fuelled by 25 tonnes of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. It has a 4-metre diameter and is 8.2 metres long. The stage will produce 20 tonnes of thrust.

History
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) project was initiated in 1990 with the objective of acquiring an Indian government launch capability for Geosynchronous satellites. Until then, India depended on the former Soviet Union for the launch of heavy satellites.
GSLV uses major components that are already proven in the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) launchers in the form of the S125/S139 solid booster and the liquid-fueled rocket engine Vikas engine. The first development flight of GSLV Mk.I (GSLV-D1) was launched on 18 April 2001. GSLV-F04 is the fifth flight of India's Geosynchronous Satellite launch Vehicle (GSLV), launched INSAT-4CR satellite, into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) of 170 km perigee and 35,975 km apogee with an orbital inclination of 21.7 degree with respect to equator on September 2, 2007. Subsequently, the satellite was manoeuvred into geostationary orbit using its own propulsion system.
The 49 metres (161 ft) tall GSLV, with a lift-off mass of 415 tonnes (457 tons), is a three-stage vehicle with solid, liquid and cryogenic stages. The first stage of GSLV, one of the largest in the world, uses Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) based propellant. The second stage and the four strap-on motors surrounding the first stage use liquid propellant 'Vikas' engine burning UH25 and Nitrogen Tetraoxide. The third stage is a cryogenic stage using liquid Hydrogen as fuel and liquid Oxygen as oxidiser. GSLV employs S-band telemetry and C-band transponders for enabling vehicle performance monitoring, tracking, range safety / flight safety and Preliminary Orbit Determination.
The payload fairing, which is 7.8 metres (26 ft) long and 3.4 metres (11 ft) in diameter, protects the vehicle electronics and the spacecraft during its ascent through the atmosphere It is discarded when the vehicle reaches an altitude of about 115 km.
The Redundant Strap Down Inertial Navigation System/Inertial Guidance System of GSLV housed in its equipment bay guides the vehicle from lift-off to spacecraft injection. The digital auto-pilot and closed loop guidance scheme ensure the required attitude manoeuvre and guide injection of the spacecraft to the specified orbit.
GSLV, as all other satellite launch vehicles of India, is launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota, the spaceport of India. The maiden flight occurred in 2001 carrying GSAT-1, however the launch failed to reach the correct orbit. Attempts to save the payload, by using its own propulsion system to manoeuvre it into the correct orbit were unsuccessful as it ran out of fuel several thousand kilometres below geosynchronous orbit.
The GSLV became operational after a second development flight, which successfully placed GSAT-2 in 2003. In its first operational flight in September 2004, GSLV launched EDUSAT - India's first dedicated satellite for educational services. However, the second operational flight, GSlV-F02, conducted on July 10, 2006 did not succeed in placing the satellite INSAT-4C into orbit.
A replacement satellite, INSAT-4CR was launched in September 2007. The launch was a partial failure, with the satellite being placed into a lower-than-planned orbit, but unlike GSAT-1 it was able to correct its own orbit, at the expense of several years' operational life.
Two launches in 2010 both failed; the first, in April, was the first flight of the GSLV Mk.II, with an Indian-developed third stage engine replacing the Russian engine used on earlier flights. The third stage failed to ignite. The next launch, in December, used the Russian engine, however the vehicle went out of control during first stage flight and was destroyed by range safety.



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